How the Benefits of the DOL Fiduciary Rule Have Already Taken Root
When Linda and Bill came into my office, I could sense their hesitancy right away. And when they told me their story, I could understand why they were so apprehensive about meeting with a financial advisor. They had, quite simply, learned not to trust.
Like many people, they’d realized they needed to stop being “do-it-yourselfers” and begin working with a financial professional. What they didn’t know was how to find a good advisor whose advice was based on their needs—not the advisor’s pockets. Unfortunately, it took them many years to understand the difference. “When I retired, our advisor gave me all the reasons why I should roll over my retirement savings into an IRA, and it seemed like a good idea,” said Linda. “But what I didn’t understand was that it was probably more of a good idea for him than for me.” That understanding came when a friend pointed out the fees she’d paid—and how much her advisor had earned in commissions from the transaction. Linda handed me the article her friend had shared with her that called out the practice of advisors receiving big perks (“say, a six-day, five-night resort vacation in Maui”) for selling a particular product. Ouch. Then Bill chimed in: “When I was 68 and had been collecting Social Security for two years already, someone told me I should have waited to claim until I was 70…that it would have added 30% to my monthly check,” he said. “When I asked our advisor why he hadn’t advised me on this, he said I’d never asked. I hadn’t, but I didn’t know what I didn’t know!”
The conversation got me thinking: with news about Trump signing an executive order delaying the DOL Fiduciary Rule—and even potentially doing away with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, investors need more education than ever. And if these regulations do fall away in the wake of the new administration, caveat emptor—or “let the buyer beware”—should be the phrase on everyone’s lips, and it should be driving every financial decision you make, from how and where to invest your hard-earned savings to whom you choose to work with to help guide your financial decisions.
The good news for consumers is that many of the anticipated benefits of the DOL Fiduciary Rule have already taken root. The media attention on the rule brought the idea of “fiduciary responsibility” into the mainstream, shining light on the difference between a fiduciary who is legally bound to act in the best interest of his or her client and ensure no conflict of interest, and a non-fiduciary advisor who is typically compensated by commission and is held only to a suitability obligation. (For more on this topic, see my blog When did it become ok to be financially illiterate?) But even with that knowledge, how do you choose an advisor who is not only working in your best interest, but is also a good fit for you?
The first step is to do your research. Get referrals from investors and other financial professionals, and be sure the advisor is a fiduciary who is, indeed, working in your best interest. When you meet face to face, here are five questions to ask to help you get the information you need to make a smart, informed choice:
- What are your credentials? The most trusted in the industry are Certified Financial Planner®(CFP®), Personal Financial Specialist (CPA/PFS), and Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC). This article talks about the benefits of each.
- How are you compensated? Fee-only advisors minimize conflict of interest by receiving compensation only from the client. Fee-only advisors receive no commissions or other perks for the products they recommend. Other compensation models include fee-based, which is a combination of fees and commissions, and commissions only. If the advisor does earn commissions, ask if they come from product sales, from securities trading, or both, as well as specifically how much that commission is. (Yes, it’s okay to ask!)
- May I see your ADV? Every Registered Investment Advisor is required to file a Form ADV with the SEC. The ADV outlines the details of the practice, including compensation, experience, service offerings, and any disciplinary history. Consider the ADV your advisor’s resume.
- What services do you offer? Know what you want and, even more importantly, what you need. Investment management may be at the top of your list, but what about financial and retirement planning? Do you need a Social Security claiming strategy? Do you have the right type of insurance and the right level of coverage? What about estate planning? Understand what your advisor offers and if she has a network of trusted professionals to support the needs she doesn’t provide in-house.
- How can you help me simplify and improve my personal finances? Like Linda and Bill, you may not know what you don’t know. This question can help you uncover unexpected ways the advisor can help you make changes that can lead to greater financial confidence and a better long-term financial outlook. After all, your financial success—today and far into the future—is the ultimate goal.
In our own Investment Policy Statement (and no matter who you choose to work with, be sure you receive and review this contract carefully!), we break down the roles and responsibilities of the three key partners in the road to financial wellness: the custodian (whose job it is to hold and protect your assets), the advisor (whose job it is to design and implement a financial and investment plan based on your needs and goals, and to regularly monitor the performance of that plan), and the investor—that’s you!—who has three key responsibilities: 1) to oversee your advisor, 2) to understand what you want to achieve and communicate those goals to your advisor even as they change over time, and 3) to carefully review your statements and be sure you understand how your money is being invested, how you are being charged, and if your plan is fulfilling your needs. If you’re clear about those roles and responsibilities and do your part, a well-chosen advisor should serve you well.
No matter how you feel about what role the government should play when it comes to protecting consumers, ultimately, you alone are responsible for managing your money. Trusting your advisor is important, but the person you really need to trust is yourself. Keep in mind the definition of caveat emptor: “the principle that the buyer alone is responsible for checking the quality and suitability of goods before a purchase is made.” And remember, it’s your money. It’s your responsibility.
ETFs: The Importance of “Looking Under the Hood"
Written by: Doug Sandler, CFA, Global Strategist at Riverfront Investment Group
The growth of the ETF industry has been a boon to investors, providing access to new asset classes and time-tested investment strategies at a competitive cost. However, the industry’s rapid growth has also brought its own set of challenges with one of the biggest being how to ‘make sense of it all’.
With thousands of ETFs in existence and new offerings becoming available every day (see chart below), it has become increasingly important to thoroughly research an ETF before buying it. Most ETFs are not as alike as their naming conventions or category classification might imply. Only by ‘looking under the hood’ can an investor truly assess the unique features and risks that ultimately impact the performance of an ETF in varying economic environments.
Many of the investment professionals at Riverfront have been building ETF portfolios for nearly 15 years and we are fortunate to have a number of proprietary and third-party tools that enable us to easily identify and quantify the risks in every ETF we invest in. However, since these tools can be expensive and difficult to develop, we often see investors relying on simple points of comparison like expense ratios or size/trading volume when choosing between several ETFs.
This lack of in-depth analysis means that investors can be unknowingly comparing ‘apples’ to ‘oranges’ and making a purchase decision based upon which is cheapest or which is most popular. In this article, we share a framework to help compare ETFs and properly assess their key features and risks.
We believe that the three most important characteristics to consider when comparing ETFs are: 1. Universe Definition, 2. Selection Criteria and 3. Weighting Methodology.
1. Universe Definition:
Every ETF is built from a defined universe of stocks. A universe can be defined broadly, like all companies in the Wilshire 5000, or narrowly, like all biotechnology companies in the S&P 500. What a universe includes or excludes can have meaningful performance implications, and thus should be an important consideration when comparing ETFs. Below are a few examples of universe differences that are often overlooked by investors.
A. Europe Example: What one index provider defines as European companies may differ from the definition used by another provider. One important distinction is whether they are including companies that are members of the European Union (EU), or members of the European Monetary Union (EMU). The EU is comprised of 28 countries that have agreed to principals governing interactions including trade and immigration. The EMU, on the other hand, is made up of only the 11 countries that utilize the Euro as their common currency. A number of countries like Germany and France are members of both the EU and EMU; however there are a number of countries like the UK, Switzerland, and Norway that are members of the EU and not the EMU. The countries in the EU but not in the EMU represent nearly 50% of the EU index and their exclusion can be expected to impact an ETF’s performance. This difference may become increasingly relevant as the UK faces its own unique challenges navigating its exit from the EU (Brexit).
B. Emerging Market example: The two largest emerging market (EM) ETFs have one key difference, the inclusion of South Korea. South Korea is the 2nd largest country weighting in the emerging market index as defined by MSCI, currently representing roughly 15% of the index. The FTSE emerging market index, which is the index behind the largest EM ETF in the marketplace, does not consider S. Korea as an emerging market country and thus does not include it in its index. The dissimilar treatment of S. Korea can have material performance implications on the two ETFs, as it has so far in 2017, with S. Korea significantly outperforming other emerging market countries. Investors worried about escalating tensions with North Korea, or believe that these fears are overblown, need to consider these differences when choosing their EM ETF.
C. Technology Example: Some indexes define technology more broadly than others. A key area of differentiation is with regard to how they define Internet Retail. Some index providers classify these companies within the technology sector, while others view them as members of the consumer discretionary sector. Similar varied treatment can be found with regard to the media and the electric vehicle industries. With Internet retail, media and electric vehicles comprising a significant portion of some technology indexes, the performance implications can be profound. Those that believe companies in these industries represent the future of technology should consider an ETF that is built on a more inclusive index.
2. Selection Criteria:
The next characteristic to consider, in our view, is the ETF’s selection methodology. ETFs with a selection methodology based on criteria (i.e., ‘factors’) other than ‘market capitalization’ are often referred to as ‘Smart-Beta’. A factor is a characteristic like ‘share-price volatility’ or ‘dividend yield’ that is used to screen or rank securities within a defined universe. With over 2,000 listed ETFs, there is likely an ETF to satisfy the needs of even the most discerning ‘stock-picker’. An ETF’s selection criteria can be simple, utilizing just a few static factors, or sophisticated like those that employ dozens of variable factors.
A. Number of Criteria (Factors): Every selection methodology has the potential to introduce biases into an ETF that may not be entirely transparent or intentional. For example, an ETF that selects its constituents using a factor like ‘value’ will also likely impart significant sector overweights and underweights into the fund. Many “value”-based indexes, for example, are currently overweight financials and underweight technology and healthcare. Investors who are bullish on technology and bearish on financials should steer clear of value ETFs with these structural biases. A general rule of thumb is that ETFs that employ a small number of factors (four or less) tend to have more biases than those that have more complex factor selection methodologies. While there is nothing inherently wrong with a bias if it’s what an investor intended, it is important that those biases are known ahead of time and not a ‘surprise’ later. We like to say: ‘Every ETF has a bias, never make a purchase decision before you find it.”
B. Factor Definition: Selection methodologies can also vary in the way they define a factor. For example, the ‘value’ factor can be defined differently by different index compilers. One might use a company’s price/book ratio while another uses price/earnings or price/sales. To complicate things further, one provider may only include the constituents with the most extreme ‘value’ rankings and another might include a broader group of companies with attractive ‘value’ rankings. This can lead to significant cap, sector and industry weighting differences between two similar sounding ‘value’ ETFs. For example, as of 11/30/17, the two largest value ETFs as determined by ETFdb vary in their small and mid-cap exposure by ten percentage points. Just like you should not judge a book by its cover, it can be dangerous to judge an ETF by its name alone.
C. Static or Variable (Active): Active ETFs differ from traditional ETFs in an important way. Active ETFs do not follow an index and as a result have the flexibility to adjust their selection criteria, as opposed to traditional ETFs that follow indexes whose selection methodology is set at the time of the index’s inception. There are pros and cons to each methodology. One advantage of active ETFs is that they have the ability to evolve and adapt to a changing investment climate. Some might view this advantage as a disadvantage, since the ETF’s biases will be dynamic and less predictable. For example, an active US equity ETF that falls under a mid-cap classification one day, may become more large-cap focused three months later.
3. Construction/Weighting Methodology:
The third important differentiating characteristic, in our view, is the ETF’s weighting methodology. The weighting methodology not only has the potential to introduce additional biases, but can also dilute or amplify the selection methodology.
A. Capitalization Weighting vs Non-Capitalization Weighting:
- Size Bias: ETFs that utilize a market capitalization weighting scheme will tend to contain a size bias that favors large-caps, while a non-cap weighted methodology will tend to have greater exposure to mid and small-caps. This can be particularly important at various market stages. For example, it is not unusual for small and mid-caps to outperform in the early stage of a bull market due to their greater leverage to improving business conditions, while large-caps often outperform in a bear market when investors demand stronger balance sheets.
- Concentration Bias: Market-cap weighting methodologies can also introduce concentration risk to a portfolio, where a handful of securities comprise a significant portion of the ETF. A popular South Korean index, for example, is cap-weighted and dominated by a single company that comprises more than 23% of the index. Concentration issues can undermine an objective to diversify risk, particularly in higher risk areas like biotechnology or emerging markets. Ultimately, an unintended concentration bias can turn the ‘right’ idea into the ‘wrong’ outcome if not monitored closely.
B. Factor-Weighted: Factor-weighting methodologies assign the greatest weights to the stocks that have the highest factor scores. For example, the largest constituents in a factor-weighted momentum ETF will be the stocks displaying the strongest momentum. A factor-weighted ETF can be expected to perform differently than one that simply identifies the 100 strongest momentum stocks and weights them equally. Factor-weighting methodologies have the potential to amplify returns positively or negatively.
One could argue that buying an ETF is similar to buying an automobile. A car buyer rarely makes their purchase decision based solely on price. Instead they consider the vehicle’s design, drivetrain and safety features to determine if it meets their unique needs. In most cases, the decision to purchase an ETF should also not be made solely on the fund’s expense ratio, since there are likely other distinguishing features that will be more impactful to the fund’s performance. By understanding the construction and drivers of performance in an exchange-traded product, investors can minimize the potential for surprises down the road.
Important Disclosure Information:
The comments above refer to generally to financial markets and not RiverFront portfolios or any related performance.
Past results are no guarantee of future results and no representation is made that a client will or is likely to achieve positive returns, avoid losses, or experience returns similar to those shown or experienced in the past.
Information or data shown or used in this material was received from sources believed to be reliable, but accuracy is not guaranteed.
Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are sold by prospectus. Please consider the investment objectives, risk, charges and expenses carefully before investing. The prospectus and summary prospectus, which contains this and other information, can be obtained by calling your financial advisor. Read it carefully before you invest. As a portfolio manager and a fiduciary for our clients, RiverFront will consider the investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses of a fund carefully before investing our clients’ assets.
ETFs are subject to substantially the same risks as those associated with the direct ownership of the underlying securities owned by the ETF. Additionally, the value of the investment will fluctuate in response to the performance of the underlying index or securities. ETFs typically charge and/or incur fees in addition to those fees charged by RiverFront. Therefore, investments in ETFs will result in the layering of expenses.
Actively managed funds are subject to management risk. In managing a fund’s investment portfolio, the sub-advisor will apply investment techniques and risk analysis that may not have the desired result.
Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss.
Technology and Internet-related stocks, especially of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market.
Small-, mid- and micro-cap companies may be hindered as a result of limited resources or less diverse products or services and have therefore historically been more volatile than the stocks of larger, more established companies.
Investments in international and emerging markets securities include exposure to risks such as currency fluctuations, foreign taxes and regulations, and the potential for illiquid markets and political instability.
Beta measures volatility relative to a benchmark. A result greater than 1.0 implies that a security is more volatile than the benchmark; a result less than 1.0 suggests that the security is less volatile than the benchmark. Betas may change over time.
RiverFront Investment Group, LLC, is an investment adviser registered with the Securities Exchange Commission under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. The company manages a variety of portfolios utilizing stocks, bonds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). RiverFront also serves as sub-advisor to a series of mutual funds and ETFs. Opinions expressed are current as of the date shown and are subject to change. They are not intended as investment recommendations.
RiverFront is owned primarily by its employees through RiverFront Investment Holding Group, LLC, the holding company for RiverFront. Baird Financial Corporation (BFC) is a minority owner of RiverFront Investment Holding Group, LLC and therefore an indirect owner of RiverFront. BFC is the parent company of Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated (“Baird”), a registered broker/dealer and investment adviser.
These materials include general information and have not been tailored for any specific recipient or recipients. Accordingly, these materials are not intended to cause RiverFront Investment Group, LLC or an affiliate to become a fiduciary within the meaning of Section 3(21)(A)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended or Section 4975(e)(3)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
Index Definitions (You cannot invest directly in an index):
The Wilshire 5000 Total Market Index, or more simply the Wilshire 5000, is a market-capitalization-weighted index of the market value of all stocks actively traded in the United States.
The MSCI Emerging Markets Index captures large and mid cap representation across 24 Emerging Markets (EM) countries*. With 838 constituents, the index covers approximately 85% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization in each country.
The FTSE Emerging Index is a free-float, market-capitalization weighted index representing the performance of around 850 large and mid cap companies in 22 emerging markets. The index is derived from the FTSE Global Equity Index Series.
The MSCI Europe Index represents the performance of large and mid-cap equities across 15 developed countries in Europe. The Index has a number of sub-Indexes which cover various sub-regions market segments/sizes, sectors and covers approximately 85% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization in each country.
The S&P 500® is widely regarded as the best single gauge of large-cap U.S. equities. There is over USD 7.8 trillion benchmarked to the index, with index assets comprising approximately USD 2.2 trillion of this total. The index includes 500 leading companies and captures approximately 80% coverage of available market capitalization.
Copyright ©2017 RiverFront Investment Group. All rights reserved. 2017.298
This document is a general communication being provided for informational purposes only. It is educational in nature and not designed to be a recommendation for any specific investment product, strategy, plan feature or other purpose. Any examples used are generic, hypothetical and for illustration purposes only. Prior to making any investment or financial decisions, an investor should seek individualized advice from personal financial, legal, tax and other professional advisors that take into account all of the particular facts and circumstances of an investor’s own situation.
J.P. Morgan Asset Management is the marketing name for the asset management business of JPMorgan Chase & Co. and its affiliates worldwide.
J.P. Morgan Asset Management and JPMDS are not affiliated with RiverFront Investment Group.
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