As you near your 60’s, your prime earning and saving years will transition into a period of time where you get to enjoy the “fruits of your labor,” a.k.a retirement. We call this segueing from accumulation to decumulation, the period when you will be drawing from your accumulated nest egg. You need to find the best retirement investments so that you can generate regular income, without having to go back to work. Here’s an overview of the most popular income-producing retirement investments.
Immediate annuities provide guaranteed income immediately (hence the name). They are a form of insurance rather than an investment (but still included here because they provide steady income). A ten-year term-certain annuity, for example, buys a stream of income for ten years. Because immediate annuities start paying out right away, they appeal to people already retired. They are not for everyone – they tie up assets, and you may “lose” money if you die before fully “cashing out.” Immediate annuities may be advantageous if you have trouble staying within your spending limits, cannot stick to an investment plan, or have no monthly sources of income besides Social Security.
Bonds, individual or bundled in funds, are loans you give to governments, municipalities or corporations that then pay you regular interest. When the bond matures, its face value is returned to you. We often recommend clients purchase bonds in a bond ladder , which is a collection of bonds that have different maturity dates set to match their future cash flow needs. Bonds are a lower-risk option than other investments, which means lower returns (usually). Buy bonds not to grow money but for the regular interest income they produce, and for the guaranteed principal you will receive when they mature.
Retirement income funds are great for folks who aren’t interested in keeping regular tabs on their portfolio. They are a type of mutual fund; they automatically invest your money in a diversified portfolio of stocks and bonds. The fund’s goal is to produce monthly income. Most people have experience with mutual funds, so they feel comfortable with retirement income funds . And, like mutual funds, retirement income funds are set up so you can access your money at any time.
Renting out property for income requires a hands-on approach, and in many cases, more work than you might have anticipated for your golden years. Research and forethought are key. Before you decide to become a landlord in retirement , consider the rental property expenses you may incur over the time-frame you plan to own the property, like maintenance, damage from negligent renters, natural disasters, etc. You also need to factor in vacancy rates—no property remains rented 100 percent of the time. For those with a real estate background, or if you want to put the time in, real estate can be a great source of regular income but go in with your eyes wide open.
A REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust) is a mutual fund that aggregates real estate holdings (apartment buildings, commercial structures, vacation properties, etc.). For a fee, professionals manage the properties, collect rent, and pay expenses, and you receive the remaining income. As part of a diversified portfolio, REITs can be a good retirement investment choice.
I devote twelve pages in my book Control Your Retirement Destiny to variable annuities. That’s because they’re complicated. In a variable annuity, your money goes into a portfolio of investments you choose. For a fee, you can add an optional benefit, called a rider. The rider insures the amount of future income you can withdraw from your portfolio. Variable annuities come in many flavors, and many people who offer them don’t truly understand them. Be cautious – sometimes I see variable annuities with total fees running about three to four percent (ouch!) a year. Your investments will have to earn back the fees and more for you to benefit.
Not for newbie investors, closed-end funds encompass a wide range of investment approaches that may be unfamiliar to the layman (they overlay stocks and bonds with strategies like dividend captures and covered calls). Income comes from interest, dividends, premiums from selling options like covered calls, or return of principal. Some closed-end funds use leverage (they borrow against the portfolio) —an additional risk that is employed to buy more income-producing securities so the fund can pay an overall higher yield. Closed-end funds can be a great retirement investment option, as part of a mix, for savvy investors.
A dividend income fund, like other funds, is a collection of stocks overseen by a fund manager. The dividends you receive come from the dividends paid out by the underlying stocks in the fund. Dividends can rise one year and fall the next. Some publicly-traded companies generate qualified dividends, which are taxed at a lower rate than other income. As such, it may be most tax-efficient to hold qualified dividends within non-retirement accounts (meaning not inside of an IRA, Roth IRA, 401(k), etc.). I caution clients to be wary of funds that advertise high yields – yields that are higher than average typically come with additional risks.
When done right, a total return portfolio is one of the best retirement investments out there. It is not a stand-alone investment; it is a strategy that uses a balanced, diverse blend of stock and bond index funds that provide retirement income in the form of interest, dividends, and capital gains. The portfolio is designed to achieve a respectable long-term rate of return, and along the way, you follow a prescribed set of withdrawal rate rules that will typically allow you to take out 4-7 percent a year, and in some years, increase your withdrawal for inflation. What does “total return” mean? Well, unlike a Certificate of Deposit, that has a specific interest rate, with a total return portfolio you don’t know what the actual return will be each year. Some years your investments could be up 14%, and other years down -10%. But you know over a ten-year span of time that a specific mix of investments, such as 60% stock index funds and 40% bonds, has a high probability of earning a 6-7% average rate of return. So you are targeting that “total” average return, rather than knowing the exact outcome each year.
This introduction to income-generating retirement investments is a lot to take in. Keep in mind many of the vehicles discussed above are investment products, not financial planning tools. Many financial advisors are salespeople who place too much emphasis on investment selection and investment products and too little on planning. Make sure you have a well-designed retirement income plan in place before you buy any financial product. If you want to learn more about all the pieces to consider when planning for retirement, read Control Your Retirement Destiny .